How many of you know when and how cartoons appeared?
At the end of the 19th century, there were no computers, no TVs, no tablets, and even smartphones. But there were such devices as a magic lantern, thaumatrope, daedaleum and others.
With the help of them, people actuated a series of images replacing each other, creating the effect of movement.
Emile Reino in 1877 invented and made a special device — a praxinoscope. It looked like this — a tape with 8 or 12 pictures was placed on the inside of the rotating cylinder. In the center is a row of small mirrors. When the cylinder was set in motion, each picture was reflected in the mirror and the effect of smooth movement arose.
Emil created funny comedy scenes with the help of a praxinoscope, which were very popular. And the first cartoon character that became famous all over the world was Felix the cat from the film The Adventures of Felix by the American artist and screenwriter Otto Messmer.
At first, each frame of the cartoon or scene was drawn separately. But such a process turned out to be too time-consuming and they came up with the so-called layer-by-layer technique. The scenery and characters were drawn on special transparent films, then superimposed on each other. Individual frames were obtained, which were painted and photographed.
Another well-known old technique is silhouette animation. For a cartoon, flat figures were cut out of dense fabric or paper. In every frame, their movements were filmed on camera.
Surely each of you has seen puppet and plasticine cartoons. With this technique, the characters are made voluminous, for example, from plasticine, set against the backdrop of scenery and photographed. After each frame, the pose of the hero in the scene changes. The first plasticine cartoons appeared in 1908 in the USA.
There are many other techniques in animation — there is simply not enough space to tell about everything, there are so many of them. Today, 3D computer animation is increasingly used to create cartoons. You probably know about her. Scenes are modeled in 3D on a computer, where the figures have a «virtual skeleton». By the way, «Toy Story» (1995) is the first such cartoon in full length.
In Russia, the largest animation studio appeared in 1936. Now it is known to all children and adults — it is called Soyuzmultfilm.
You can get acquainted with the history of animation at the Moscow Museum of Animation. The collection of this most interesting museum contains more than 5,000 exhibits, video screens in the halls demonstrate unique materials collected by the museum, there is a cinema for children, where filming and cartoons are shown.