Both large and small states live according to certain laws that all citizens must comply with. One of them is the Constitution, the most important law of the country: it outlines the rights and obligations of every citizen. What is this document and what is it for?
What is the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the history of its appearance
The Constitution of the Russian Federation is the main law of Russia. This means that all other laws, decrees and resolutions issued on the territory of Russia must obey the Constitution and not contradict its clauses. We can say that the Constitution is the most important list of rules that all citizens of the Russian Federation have established for themselves.
Why is this document needed? First of all, so that all the inhabitants of the country know their rights and obligations and can, if necessary, protect them. The Constitution protects both adults and children from injustice. The purpose of this document is to make the life of the citizens of the state safe.
How did the idea to write the Constitution of the Russian Federation come about? Of course, this document did not come from nowhere. It was preceded by other laws that, in ancient times, kings and emperors created to protect their subjects, manage and regulate affairs within the country.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on December 12, 1993. Since then, on December 12, we have been celebrating a public holiday — Constitution Day. In those days there was no Internet, but there was television, newspapers, magazines and radio. The code of laws itself was created by scientists and statesmen. They changed some points, some were updated, some were added for the first time. And on December 12, 1993, the people of Russia adopted the Constitution in a referendum — a popular vote. People came to the polling stations and cast their votes «for» or «against» the new document.
What is written in the Constitution
What makes the Constitution of the Russian Federation so important and special? Her content! The main law of our country affects all aspects of the life of every citizen. For example, this document says:
- why our country is called a federation;
- how our state is organized, what language is spoken in it, how many peoples live in the country;
- what rights do all citizens of Russia have (for example, the right to education, to medical care);
- what obligations do the inhabitants of Russia have (for example, to pay taxes, to comply with laws);
- who is the president of the country and why is he needed;
- what are the «Federal Assembly» and «Government» — the two main bodies of power in Russia;
- what are the symbols of the state (flag, coat of arms, anthem) and what do they mean.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation says a lot about the rights of children. This is due to age and capabilities: if adults have already reached the age of majority, they can be responsible for their actions and protect themselves, then children cannot do this yet.
Separately noted are the right to life (no one has the right to kill and take the life of another person) and the right to protect the dignity of the individual (no one has the right to humiliate, insult, torment a person).
constitutions of different countries
Of course, not only the Russian Federation has a constitution. They are all different, but their task is the same — to unite the citizens of a certain state, protect their rights and determine the general rules for governing the country. We found several facts about the constitutions of different countries.
1. The Japanese constitution was adopted in 1947. It has never been amended. The document says that the people of Japan forever renounce war, the use of the army and weapons in resolving conflicts between countries. And the Constitution of this country defines the status of the emperor as a symbol of Japan.
2. The US Constitution is considered one of the most ancient. It was adopted in 1787. It is this document that «divides» the country into independent states, regulates the borders and the relationship between them. The main goals of this document are the preservation of public order, assistance in the prosperity of the country, protection of the rights of people and protection from enemies.
3. The Constitution of India was adopted in 1949. This document is considered the most voluminous constitution in the world, because its content is 448 articles, several applications and many amendments. It is interesting that the authors of the Indian constitution tried to make the best constitution, in their opinion. So they took documents from other countries and borrowed the most important points from them.
4. The constitution of Ecuador is one of the youngest, it was adopted in 2008. Interestingly, the Ecuadorian document is the first constitution in the world that protects the rights of nature and ecology. Also in the Constitution of Ecuador for the first time noted the right to food.
5. The Brazilian Constitution was adopted in 1988. It is considered the largest document in the history of the country. It includes a separate chapter on the rights of Indians living in the historical territory. The Brazilian Constitution even states the right of people over 65 to ride public transport for free!
6. The Mexican constitution was adopted in 1917. This document was the first in the world in which an eight-hour working day was proclaimed — this is how most companies and firms work now.
7. The Constitution of Malta was adopted in 1964 by popular vote. The text of the document directly states that Malta will maintain a neutral position in all military conflicts, because the state always strives for peace.